The effect of exercise on human physiology
Intense exercise significantly alter the functioning of the vital systems of the human body.
In the quiescent state of a man aged 16-45 years blood pressure is characterized by minimal pressure 60-85 mm Hg. article maximum pressure 110-125 mm Hg. article the Number of contractions of the heart lies in the range 60-80 beats per minute. When this is run the whole blood volume – 3-5 liters (6-7% of body weight).
During physical exercise increases the cardiovascular system, which significantly increases the bloodstream. Due to the increase of stroke volume and increased frequency of contractions, cardiac output (in medical terminology) is increased by 5-10 times, that is, with 3-5 20-40 liters. As the load increased contractions of the heart can reach 180 to 240 beats per minute. However, it is effective only to the level 150-190 BPM. Hard work increases blood pressure, the minimum pressure varies little, 5-15 mm Hg. article the Maximum pressure is up to 150 and even 200 mm Hg. article
Heart rate during work also depends on the ambient temperature. At a temperature of 30 and above degrees Celsius there is an additional frequent cuts at 10-15 times per minute.
– Work in accordance with the increase of gas exchange increases the work of breathing apparatus. If alone ventilation is 5-8 l/min when using 3-4% oxygen during muscular work ventilation up to 100 l/min, and oxygen use is 4-8%. Respiratory rate is increased from 10-20 to 30-40 times per minute.
Muscular work causes a working person the restructuring of thermoregulation by increasing energy and metabolism. So, we know that when you walk at an average speed of raising the temperature of the body is about 0.5 to 0.6 degrees, after a long and fast running body temperature can rise to 39-40 degrees. Heavy physical work, the body temperature may increase by 1.5-2.5 degrees, which can lead to heat stroke in the case of difficulty of heat transfer.
Heavy physical activity affects the function of the endocrine system. Moreover, long-term work may include protective functions of the body and again to be changes in the endocrine system.
Physical activity reduces the blood levels of insulin (pancreas) and epinephrine (adrenal glands). It should be noted that the change of endocrine system big is the impact of mental tensions of labor (pilots, drivers).
Work as a stimulus that alters the composition of the blood. Increases the number of red blood cells (the norm for men of 4.5-5.5, for women and 3.9-4.7 million/mm3), increased hemoglobin (a measure of the norm for men 130-160, for women 120-140), increases the total number of cells (norm 4-9 thousand/mm3). However, it is very hard work might help decrease the content of erythrocytes and hemoglobin.
Hard work leads to increased . Alone people through respiration and kidney excretes moisture about 40 g/h, and during physical activity, the figure rises to 300 g/h.
Hard work in adverse conditions leads to sweating up to 6-10 liters per shift (steelworker
the fate got in these conditions. In particular, many of the facts that make up the current database for theoretical and applied concepts of physiology, have been obtained in studies of pediatric populations in the underdeveloped countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, where children do not get enough.